RSpec vs Robot Framework comparison of testing frameworks
What are the differences between RSpec and Robot Framework?

RSpec

https://rspec.info

Robot Framework

https://robotframework.org/
Programming language

Ruby

Python

Category

Unit Testing, Intergration Testing

Acceptance Testing

General info

Domain Specific Language (DSL) testing solution for Ruby code

It focuses on empowering Test Driven Development (TDD). RSpec contains multiple smaller libraries, which may be independently used with other testing frameworks.

Robot is a Python framework used for acceptance/functional testing

Robot is an automated test framework which has a simple plain text syntax and can be extended easily with Python or Java libraries. It can run on the .net-based IronPython and on Jython which is Java based.
xUnit
Set of frameworks originating from SUnit (Smalltalk's testing framework). They share similar structure and functionality.

Yes

Yes, but it differs from more traiditional xUnit solutions. Its tests are written in a "Tests as Specification" manner. This means that the terminology used in RSpec is adjusted to a language more fitting for specification.

No

Client-side
Allows testing code execution on the client, such as a web browser

Yes

RSpec is used to primarily test the behaviour of applications or individual components so it can test front-end behaviour as well - you can use capybara gem with RSpec for that.

Yes

Robot has a rich library and can also be easily integrated with Selenium for browser automation to test front-end components
Server-side
Allows testing the bahovior of a server-side code

Yes

You can test server-side behaviour with Rspec

Yes

Robot can be used for back-end tests as well
Fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data (fixtures) that are test-local. This ensures specific environment for a single test

Yes

RSpec does contain fixture methods

There is no inbuilt way to work with fixtures in Robot however it can integrate with unittest and use fixtures that way
Group fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data for a group of tests (group-fixtures). This ensures specific environment for a given group of tests.

Yes

Group fixture methods are supported

By integrating with unittest
Generators
Supports data generators for tests. Data generators generate input data for test. The test is then run for each input data produced in this way.

Yes

RSpec contains generators for example intergration_'test_name' which will save a spec inside the spec/requests folder

Yes

Robot has a library called the Robot Framework Faker library. It contains 147 keywords used for generating random test data
Licence
Licence type governing the use and redistribution of the software

MIT License

Apache License 2.0

Mocks
Mocks are objects that simulate the behavior of real objects. Using mocks allows testing some part of the code in isolation (with other parts mocked when needed)

Yes

Available through rspec-mocks gem.

Yes

Robot can access Python's mock library for mocking
Grouping
Allows organizing tests in groups

Yes

Allows declaring example groups and contexts.

Yes

One can create a test suite with Robot
Other
Other useful information about the testing framework