Minitest vs JUnit comparison of testing frameworks
What are the differences between Minitest and JUnit?

Minitest

https://github.com/seattlerb/minitest

JUnit

https://junit.org/junit5/
Programming language

Ruby

Java

Category

Unit Testing

Unit Testing, Regression Testing

General info

Complete suite of testing facilities

Minitest is small, fast, and it aims to make tests clean and readable. It supports test-driven development (TDD), behavior-driven development (BDD), mocking, and benchmarking.

JUnit is an open source Unit testing framework for java

JUnit is useful for developers to write and run repeatable tests. JUnit has been crucial in the development of test driven development and is partof the xUnit family of unit testing frameworks
xUnit
Set of frameworks originating from SUnit (Smalltalk's testing framework). They share similar structure and functionality.

Yes

MiniTest is an xUnit style framework in that is has assertion functions in the style of xUnit/TDD

Yes

It is an instance of the xUnit architecture for unit testing frameworks.
Client-side
Allows testing code execution on the client, such as a web browser

No

Yes

You can test front-end components such as individual classes and functions that create the front-end
Server-side
Allows testing the bahovior of a server-side code

Yes

You can test various back-end components

Yes

You can test classes and functions that compose the back-end such as database connections and so on
Fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data (fixtures) that are test-local. This ensures specific environment for a single test

Yes

Minitest supports test fixture functions

Yes

JUnit contains a setUp() method, which runs before every test invocation and a tearDown() method, which runs after every test method.
Group fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data for a group of tests (group-fixtures). This ensures specific environment for a given group of tests.

Yes

Minitest has group fixtures

Yes

You can use setUp() and tearDown() inbuilt functions as group fixtures.
Generators
Supports data generators for tests. Data generators generate input data for test. The test is then run for each input data produced in this way.

You can use JUnit-quickcheck to generate test data
Licence
Licence type governing the use and redistribution of the software

MIT License

Mocks
Mocks are objects that simulate the behavior of real objects. Using mocks allows testing some part of the code in isolation (with other parts mocked when needed)

Yes

Mocking is available through the Minitest::Mock class which is a simple and clean mock object framework

JUnit does not support mocking internally but you can use a mock framework like Mockito to generate mock objects.
Grouping
Allows organizing tests in groups

Yes

Allows grouping by nested Ruby classes. RSpec-like "context" method is available for spec syntax through the minitest-spec-context extension gem

Yes

In JUnit you can create a test suite that bundles a few unit test cases and runs them together. You use both @RunWith and @Suite annotation are used to run the suite test.
Other
Other useful information about the testing framework