Robot Framework vs Selenium comparison of testing frameworks
What are the differences between Robot Framework and Selenium?

Robot Framework

https://robotframework.org/

Selenium

https://pypi.org/project/selenium/
Programming language

Python

Python

Category

Acceptance Testing

Web Automation

General info

Robot is a Python framework used for acceptance/functional testing

Robot is an automated test framework which has a simple plain text syntax and can be extended easily with Python or Java libraries. It can run on the .net-based IronPython and on Jython which is Java based.

Selenium is an open source tool used to test web applications

Selenium is a powerful testing tool which can send standard Python commands to different browsers, despite variations in browser design. It also provides extensions to emulate user interaction with browsers, a distribution server for scaling browser allocation, and the infrastructure for implementations of the W3C WebDriver specification that lets you write interchangeable code for all major web browsers
xUnit
Set of frameworks originating from SUnit (Smalltalk's testing framework). They share similar structure and functionality.

No

No

Client-side
Allows testing code execution on the client, such as a web browser

Yes

Robot has a rich library and can also be easily integrated with Selenium for browser automation to test front-end components

Yes

It is primarily a browser automation tool which tests front-end components and functionality
Server-side
Allows testing the bahovior of a server-side code

Yes

Robot can be used for back-end tests as well

Yes

It can perform Unit tests and can test various components and behaviours in the backend using a BDD or TDD approach
Fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data (fixtures) that are test-local. This ensures specific environment for a single test

There is no inbuilt way to work with fixtures in Robot however it can integrate with unittest and use fixtures that way

Yes

By writing your Selenium WebDriver tests in PyTest, this gives you access to Pytest's powerful fixture model
Group fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data for a group of tests (group-fixtures). This ensures specific environment for a given group of tests.

By integrating with unittest

Yes

One can group fixtures if accessing Pytest's fixture model
Generators
Supports data generators for tests. Data generators generate input data for test. The test is then run for each input data produced in this way.

Yes

Robot has a library called the Robot Framework Faker library. It contains 147 keywords used for generating random test data

Yes

By using a library such as Faker or Fake-factory
Licence
Licence type governing the use and redistribution of the software

Apache License 2.0

Apache License 2.0

Mocks
Mocks are objects that simulate the behavior of real objects. Using mocks allows testing some part of the code in isolation (with other parts mocked when needed)

Yes

Robot can access Python's mock library for mocking

Yes

It includes support for mocking
Grouping
Allows organizing tests in groups

Yes

One can create a test suite with Robot

Yes

By using the TestNG feature with which we can create groups and maintain them easily
Other
Other useful information about the testing framework