Selenium vs pytest comparison of testing frameworks
What are the differences between Selenium and pytest?

Selenium

https://pypi.org/project/selenium/

pytest

https://docs.pytest.org/en/latest/
Programming language

Python

Python

Category

Web Automation

Unit Testing

General info

Selenium is an open source tool used to test web applications

Selenium is a powerful testing tool which can send standard Python commands to different browsers, despite variations in browser design. It also provides extensions to emulate user interaction with browsers, a distribution server for scaling browser allocation, and the infrastructure for implementations of the W3C WebDriver specification that lets you write interchangeable code for all major web browsers

Pytest is the TDD 'all in one' testing framework for Python

Pytest is a powerful Python testing framework that can test all and levels of software. It is considered by many to be the best testing framework in Python with many projects on the internet having switched to it from other frameworks, including Mozilla and Dropbox. This is due to its many powerful features such as ‘assert‘ rewriting, a third-party plugin model and a powerful yet simple fixture model.
xUnit
Set of frameworks originating from SUnit (Smalltalk's testing framework). They share similar structure and functionality.

No

No

Client-side
Allows testing code execution on the client, such as a web browser

Yes

It is primarily a browser automation tool which tests front-end components and functionality

Yes

pytest can test any part of the stack including front-end components
Server-side
Allows testing the bahovior of a server-side code

Yes

It can perform Unit tests and can test various components and behaviours in the backend using a BDD or TDD approach

Yes

pytest is powerful enough to test database and server components and functionality
Fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data (fixtures) that are test-local. This ensures specific environment for a single test

Yes

By writing your Selenium WebDriver tests in PyTest, this gives you access to Pytest's powerful fixture model

Yes

Pytest has a powerful yet simple fixture model that is unmatched in any other testing framework.
Group fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data for a group of tests (group-fixtures). This ensures specific environment for a given group of tests.

Yes

One can group fixtures if accessing Pytest's fixture model

Yes

Pytest's powerful fixture model allows grouping of fixtures
Generators
Supports data generators for tests. Data generators generate input data for test. The test is then run for each input data produced in this way.

Yes

By using a library such as Faker or Fake-factory

Yes

pytest has a hook function called pytest_generate_tests hook which is called when collecting a test function and one can use it to generate data
Licence
Licence type governing the use and redistribution of the software

Apache License 2.0

MIT License

Mocks
Mocks are objects that simulate the behavior of real objects. Using mocks allows testing some part of the code in isolation (with other parts mocked when needed)

Yes

It includes support for mocking

Yes

By either using unittest.mock or using pytest-mock a thin wrapper that provides mock functionality for pytest
Grouping
Allows organizing tests in groups

Yes

By using the TestNG feature with which we can create groups and maintain them easily

Yes

Tests can be grouped with pytest by use of markers which are applied to various tests and one can run tests with the marker applied
Other
Other useful information about the testing framework