Shoulda vs Behat comparison of testing frameworks
What are the differences between Shoulda and Behat?

Shoulda

https://github.com/thoughtbot/shoulda

Behat

https://docs.behat.org/en/latest/
Programming language

Ruby

PHP

Category

Functional/Acceptance Testing

General info

Meta gem containing Shoulda Context and Shoulda Matchers

Shoulda contains two other gems: Should Context and Shoulda Matchers. Should Context allows better naming and grouping of your tests. Shoulda Matchers provides a set of "matchers", i.e. methods that allow you to write much more concise assertions.

Behat is an open source Behavior-Driven Development framework for PHP.

Behat uses the StoryBDD subtype of behaviour-driven development (the other subtype is SpecBDD); This means the tests we write with Behat look rather like stories than code. It is inspired by Ruby's Cucumber
xUnit
Set of frameworks originating from SUnit (Smalltalk's testing framework). They share similar structure and functionality.

No

No

Client-side
Allows testing code execution on the client, such as a web browser

N/A

Yes

To enable Behat to test a website, you need to add Mink and a browser emulator (selenium maybe, though slow) to the mix. Mink methods are the connector between Behat and an extensive list of available drivers, and they provide a consistent testing API.
Server-side
Allows testing the bahovior of a server-side code

N/A

Yes

Behat can be used for Data Integrity Testing to verify that database operations are functioning properly
Fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data (fixtures) that are test-local. This ensures specific environment for a single test

N/A

Yes

One can use the 'Doctrinefixturesbundle' to create the required fixture loaders and load them in our Behat scenarios when required, using the 'BeforeScenario' hook.
Group fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data for a group of tests (group-fixtures). This ensures specific environment for a given group of tests.

N/A

Yes

Behat allows for group fixtures
Generators
Supports data generators for tests. Data generators generate input data for test. The test is then run for each input data produced in this way.

N/A

By use of third party libraries like moodle-behat-generators
Licence
Licence type governing the use and redistribution of the software

MIT License

MIT License

Mocks
Mocks are objects that simulate the behavior of real objects. Using mocks allows testing some part of the code in isolation (with other parts mocked when needed)

N/A

By using third party libraries like Mock and Prophecy
Grouping
Allows organizing tests in groups

Yes

Yes

You can use tags to group features and scenarios together, independent of your file and directory structure
Other
Other useful information about the testing framework

Shoulda Context is compatible with Minitest and Test::Unit. Shoulda Matchers is compatible with RSpec and Minitest.