go test/testing vs JUnit comparison of testing frameworks
What are the differences between go test/testing and JUnit?

go test/testing

https://golang.org/pkg/testing/

JUnit

https://junit.org/junit5/
Programming language

Go

Java

Category

Unit Testing

Unit Testing, Regression Testing

General info

go test is an inbuilt tool/command for conducting automated tests in Golang while testing is the inbuilt testing library

Testing is the package that is shipped with go and combines with the go test command to provide a minimal but complete testing experience

JUnit is an open source Unit testing framework for java

JUnit is useful for developers to write and run repeatable tests. JUnit has been crucial in the development of test driven development and is partof the xUnit family of unit testing frameworks
xUnit
Set of frameworks originating from SUnit (Smalltalk's testing framework). They share similar structure and functionality.

No

However there are Plugins such as https://github.com/tebeka/go2xunitto convert the output of Go testing library into xUnit format

Yes

It is an instance of the xUnit architecture for unit testing frameworks.
Client-side
Allows testing code execution on the client, such as a web browser

Yes

Yes it can be used effectively for front-end testing

Yes

You can test front-end components such as individual classes and functions that create the front-end
Server-side
Allows testing the bahovior of a server-side code

Yes

Yes, it is used by developers for end-to-end testing so the back-end can be tested easily as well

Yes

You can test classes and functions that compose the back-end such as database connections and so on
Fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data (fixtures) that are test-local. This ensures specific environment for a single test

Yes

Yes it's straightforward in that first when you run 'go test' for packages in the scope the test will be executed with its working directory set to the source directory of the package being tested. Second the 'go test' tool will ignore any directory in your $GOPATH that starts with the word 'testdata' , starts with a period or an underscore

Yes

JUnit contains a setUp() method, which runs before every test invocation and a tearDown() method, which runs after every test method.
Group fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data for a group of tests (group-fixtures). This ensures specific environment for a given group of tests.

Yes

Group fixtures can be done following a similar procedure as a single fixture

Yes

You can use setUp() and tearDown() inbuilt functions as group fixtures.
Generators
Supports data generators for tests. Data generators generate input data for test. The test is then run for each input data produced in this way.

Yes

They are available by importing a package called 'gotests' (https://github.com/cweill/gotests)

You can use JUnit-quickcheck to generate test data
Licence
Licence type governing the use and redistribution of the software

MIT License

Mocks
Mocks are objects that simulate the behavior of real objects. Using mocks allows testing some part of the code in isolation (with other parts mocked when needed)

Yes

By use of a third party library GoMock which intergrates well with the testing library

JUnit does not support mocking internally but you can use a mock framework like Mockito to generate mock objects.
Grouping
Allows organizing tests in groups

Yes

The short answer is yes, by use of table tests which are a great way of performing multiple I/O tests on a function or behaviour with minimal code

Yes

In JUnit you can create a test suite that bundles a few unit test cases and runs them together. You use both @RunWith and @Suite annotation are used to run the suite test.
Other
Other useful information about the testing framework