XCTest vs RSpec comparison of testing frameworks
What are the differences between XCTest and RSpec?

XCTest

https://developer.apple.com/documentation/xctest

RSpec

https://rspec.info
Programming language

Swift

Ruby

Category

Unit Testing, Performance Testing

Unit Testing, Intergration Testing

General info

XCTest is the default testing framework for unit tests, performance tests, and some level of UI tests for iOS apps.

XCTest framework is a testing framework that enables developers write basic unit tests, performance tests, and some level of UI tests for iOS apps.

Domain Specific Language (DSL) testing solution for Ruby code

It focuses on empowering Test Driven Development (TDD). RSpec contains multiple smaller libraries, which may be independently used with other testing frameworks.
xUnit
Set of frameworks originating from SUnit (Smalltalk's testing framework). They share similar structure and functionality.

Yes

Yes, it is an xUnit style framework

Yes

Yes, but it differs from more traiditional xUnit solutions. Its tests are written in a "Tests as Specification" manner. This means that the terminology used in RSpec is adjusted to a language more fitting for specification.
Client-side
Allows testing code execution on the client, such as a web browser

Yes

Developers can test individual front-end components with XCTest

Yes

RSpec is used to primarily test the behaviour of applications or individual components so it can test front-end behaviour as well - you can use capybara gem with RSpec for that.
Server-side
Allows testing the bahovior of a server-side code

Yes

Yes, developers can test individual back-end components with XCTest

Yes

You can test server-side behaviour with Rspec
Fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data (fixtures) that are test-local. This ensures specific environment for a single test

Yes

XCTest contains setup() and teardown() fixture methods for setting up and destroying test environments

Yes

RSpec does contain fixture methods
Group fixtures
Allows defining a fixed, specific states of data for a group of tests (group-fixtures). This ensures specific environment for a given group of tests.

Yes

Group fixtures are available in XCTest

Yes

Group fixture methods are supported
Generators
Supports data generators for tests. Data generators generate input data for test. The test is then run for each input data produced in this way.

N/A

Yes

RSpec contains generators for example intergration_'test_name' which will save a spec inside the spec/requests folder
Licence
Licence type governing the use and redistribution of the software

Apache License 2.0

MIT License

Mocks
Mocks are objects that simulate the behavior of real objects. Using mocks allows testing some part of the code in isolation (with other parts mocked when needed)

Yes

You can create protocol mocks and class mocks with libraries such as MockFive or Cuckoo

Yes

Available through rspec-mocks gem.
Grouping
Allows organizing tests in groups

Yes

Developers can define test suites from the XCTestSuite class

Yes

Allows declaring example groups and contexts.
Other
Other useful information about the testing framework